出典:『Wiktionary』 (2014/01/12 19:19 UTC 版)
From Middle English dumb, from 古期英語 dumb (“silent, silent, speechless, mute, unable to speak”), from Proto-Germanic *dumbaz (“dull, dumb”), from Proto-Indo-European *dʰeubʰ- (“to whisk, smoke, darken, obscure”). Cognate with Scots dumb (“dumb, silent”), North Frisian dom, domme (“dumb, stupid”), West Frisian dom (“dumb, stupid”), Dutch dom (“dumb, stupid”), German dumm (“dumb, stupid”), Swedish dum (“stupid”), Icelandic dumbur (“dumb, mute”).
In ordinary spoken English, a phrase like "He is dumb" is interpreted as "He is stupid" rather than "He lacks the power of speech". The latter example, however, is the original sense of the word. The senses of stupid, unintellectual, and pointless developed under the influence of the German word dumm (which itself derives from Old High German tumb).
- Unable to speak; lacking power of speech.
- Silent; unaccompanied by words.
- dumb show
- (informal, pejorative, especially of a person) extremely stupid.
- (figuratively) Pointless, foolish, lacking intellectual content or value.
- Lacking brightness or clearness, as a colour.
- (unable to speak): dumbstruck, mute, speechless, wordless
- (stupid): feeble-minded, idiotic, moronic, stupid
- (pointless, foolish, unintellectual): banal, brainless, dopey, silly, stupid, ridiculous, vulgar
From Middle English dumbien, from 古期英語 dumbian (more commonly in compound ādumbian (“to become mute または dumb; keep silence; hold one’s peace”)), from Proto-Germanic *dumbēną, *dumbōną (“to be silent, become dumb”), from Proto-Indo-European *dʰeubʰ- (“to whisk, smoke, darken, obscure”). Cognate with German dummen (“to become dumb”).
- To silence.
- (transitive) To make stupid.
- (transitive) To represent as stupid.
- (transitive) To reduce the intellectual demands of.
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a dumb well
空井戸 - 斎藤和英大辞典
deaf and dumb
聾唖(ろうあ)の. - 研究社 新英和中辞典
a deaf‐and‐dumb alphabet
指話文字. - 研究社 新英和中辞典