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She is known as a political gadfly.発音を聞く例文帳に追加
彼女は口うるさい政治家として知られる。 - Weblio英語基本例文集
From gad (“(廃れた用法) sharp point, spike; (dialectal) sharp-pointed rod for driving cattle, horses, etc., goad”) + fly, in the sense of a fly which irritates cattle, etc., by biting them, similar to the prodding of a goad. Gad is derived from Middle English gad, gadde (“metal spike with a sharp point; stick with a sharp point for driving animals, goad; metal bar or rod, ingot; (by extension) lump of material; metal rod for measuring land; (by extension) unit of linear measure equal to about 10 to 16 feet”), borrowed from Old Norse gaddr (“spike; goad”), from Proto-Germanic *gazdaz (“spike; goad”), further etymology uncertain.
Sense 2.1.1 (“person who upsets the status quo”) may allude to the Apology by the Greek philosopher Plato (428/427 または 424/423 – 348/347 B.C.E.), where he describes Socrates (c. 470 – 399 B.C.E.) acting as a goad to the Athenian political scene like a gadfly (Ancient Greek μῠ́ωψ (múōps)) arousing a sluggish horse.
- Any dipterous (“two-winged”) insect or fly of the family Oestridae (commonly known as a botfly) or Tabanidae (horsefly), noted for irritating animals by buzzing about them, and biting them to suck their blood; a gadbee.
- 1593, Gabriel Harvey, Pierces Supererogation: Or A New Prayse of the Old Asse, London: […] Iohn Wolfe, OCLC 165778203; republished as John Payne Collier, editor, Pierces Supererogation: Or A New Prayse of the Old Asse. A Preparative to Certaine Larger Discourses, Intituled Nashes S. Fame (Miscellaneous Tracts. Temp. Eliz. & Jac. I; no. 8), [London: [s.n.], 1870], OCLC 23963073, page 147:
- 1841, R[alph] W[aldo] Emerson, “Essay I. History.”, in Essays, Boston, Mass.: James Munroe and Company, OCLC 3778020, pages 18–19:
- 2005, Rafael Argullol, “Introduction”, in Yolanda Gamboa, transl., The End of the World as a Work of Art: A Western Story, Lewisburg, Pa.: Bucknell University Press; Cranbury, N.J.: Associated University Presses, →ISBN, page 48:
- Vengeful Hera transformed her [Io] into an animal (a beautiful cow), and imposed upon her the company of a gadfly to sting her continuously, thus forcing her to escape on an endless pilgrimage.
- (figuratively, also attributively)
- A person or thing that irritates or instigates.
- 1620 (first performance; published 1622), Philip Messenger [i.e., Philip Massinger]; Thomas Dekker, The Virgin Martyr; a Tragedie. […], London: […] B[ernard] A[lsop] and T[homas] F[awcet] for Thomas Iones, […], published 1631, OCLC 1203227341, Act II:
- (specifically) A person who upsets the status quo by posing novel or upsetting questions, or attempts to stimulate innovation by being an irritant.
- 1977, Morris Kline, Why the Professor Can’t Teach: Mathematics and the Dilemma of University Education, New York, N.Y.: St. Martin’s Press, →ISBN, page 238:
- There is a function for the gadfly who poses questions that many specialists would like to overlook. Polemics is healthy.
- 2012, Andrew Martin, “The World of Charles Pearson”, in Underground Overground: A Passenger’s History of the Tube, London: Profile Books, →ISBN, pages 26–27:
- What was required now was the intervention of some men who were not gadflies. […] The logic of [Charles] Pearson's arguments was accepted, up to a point, by a consortium of businessmen. In August 1854, […] the consortium obtained royal assent for […] the Metropolitan Railway. […] In 1859, when it looked as though the Metropolitan Railway Company would be wound up with no line built, he [Pearson] wrote a pamphlet: A Twenty Minutes Letter to the Citizens of London in Favour of the Metropolitan Railway and City Station. Gadfly he may have been, but by this 'letter' he persuaded the Corporation of London to invest £200,000 in the line, a most unusual example of a public body investing in a Victorian railway.
- 2021 April 10, John Leland, “This heroin-using professor wants to change how we think about drugs”, in The New York Times, New York, N.Y.: The New York Times Company, ISSN 0362-4331, OCLC 971436363, archived from the original on 28 May 2022:
- Synonym of gadabout (“a person who restlessly moves from place to place, seeking amusement または the companionship of others”)
- 1605 August (first performance), Geo[rge] Chapman; Ben Ionson; Ioh[n] Marston, Eastvvard Hoe. […], London: […] [George Eld] for William Aspley, published September 1605, OCLC 1121359361, Act III, scene ii:
- VVhat VVinnie? VVife, I ſay? out of dores at this time! vvhere ſhould I ſeeke the Gad-flye?
- c. 1613, Thomas Middleton; William Rowley, “Wit at Several Weapons. A Comedy.”, in Comedies and Tragedies […], London: […] Humphrey Robinson, […], and for Humphrey Moseley […], published 1647, OCLC 3083972, Act IV, scene i, page 85, column 2:
- 1753 (indicated as 1754), [Samuel Richardson], “Letter XVIII. Miss Byron. In Continuation.”, in The History of Sir Charles Grandison. […], volume I, 2nd edition, London: […] S[amuel] Richardson; [a]nd sold by C. Hitch and L. Hawes, […], OCLC 926827207, page 125:
- (derogatory, slang) A person who takes without giving back; a bloodsucker.
- A person or thing that irritates or instigates.
- gadfly petrel
- ^ “gadfly, n. and adj.”, in OED Online , Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, March 2022; “gadfly, n.”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–2022.
- ^ “gad(de, n.”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.
- ^ Plato (1966), “Apology”, in Harold North Fowler, transl., Plato in Twelve Volumes (Loeb Classical Library), volume I, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press; London: William Heinemann, OCLC 13229189, section 30e: “For if you put me to death, you will not easily find another, who, to use a rather absurd figure, attaches himself to the city as a gadfly to a horse, which, though large and well bred, is sluggish on account of his size and needs to be aroused by stinging.”
- botfly on Wikipedia.
- horse-fly on Wikipedia.
- gadfly (philosophy かつ social science) on Wikipedia.
- gadfly (disambiguation) on Wikipedia.
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