該当件数 : 289件
The adjective is derived from Middle English rash, rasch (“hasty, headstrong, rash”) [and other forms], probably from 古期英語 *ræsc (“rash”) (found in derivatives such as ræscan (“to move rapidly; to flicker; to flash; to glitter; to quiver”), ræscettan (“to crackle; to sparkle”), etc.), from Proto-Germanic *raskaz, *raskuz, *raþskaz, *raþskuz (“rash; rapid”), from Proto-Indo-European *ret- (“to run, roll”). The Middle English word was probably influenced by the cognates listed below.
- Dutch ras, rasch (“rash”)
- Middle Low German rasch (“rash”)
- Old Danish rask (“agile, nimble; fast; healthy, vigorous”) (modern Danish rask (“agile, nimble; fast; healthy, vigorous; hasty, rash”))
- Old High German reski (“impetuous, rash”) (Middle High German rasch, resch (“agile, nimble; fast; lively; healthy, vigorous”), modern German rasch, räsch, resch (“agile, nimble; fast; hasty, rash; healthy, vigorous; of food: crisp, crusty”))
- Old Norse rǫskr (“brave; healthy, vigorous”) (Icelandic röskur (“strong; healthy, vigorous”))
- Old Swedish rasker (“agile, nimble; brave; fast; vigorous”) (modern Swedish rask (“agile, nimble; fast; healthy, vigorous”))
- Acting too quickly without considering the consequences and risks; not careful; hasty.
- Synonyms: foolhardy, heady, impulsive, precipitate; see also Thesaurus:reckless
- Antonyms: prudent, unrash
- 1563 March 30, John Foxe, “Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot”, in Actes and Monuments of These Latter and Perillous Dayes, […], London: […] Iohn Day, […], OCLC 64451939, book V, page :
- 1651, Thomas Hobbes, “Of Imagination”, in Leviathan, or The Matter, Forme, & Power of a Common-wealth Ecclesiasticall and Civill, London: […] [William Wilson] for Andrew Crooke, […], OCLC 895063360, first part (Of Man), page 7:
- 1659, T[itus] Livius [i.e., Livy], “[Book X]”, in Philemon Holland, transl., The Romane Historie […], London: […] W. Hunt, for George Sawbridge, […], OCLC 12997447, page 310:
- 1782, William Cowper, “Conversation”, in Poems, London: […] J[oseph] Johnson, […], OCLC 1029672464, page 257:
- 1814, Dante Alighieri, “Canto V”, in H[enry] F[rancis] Cary, transl., The Vision; or, Hell, Purgatory, and Paradise, of Dante Alighieri. [...] In Three Volumes, volume III (Paradise), London: […] [J. Barfield] for Taylor and Hessey, […], OCLC 559008226, lines 63–68, pages 21–22:
- 1928, D[avid] H[erbert] Lawrence, chapter XVIII, in Lady Chatterley’s Lover, authorized British edition, London: Martin Secker […], published February 1932 (May 1932 printing), OCLC 560928522, page 283:
- (Northern England, archaic) Of corn or other grains: so dry as to fall out of the ear with handling.
- (obsolete, rare)
- Requiring swift action; pressing; urgent.
- Taking effect quickly and strongly; fast-acting.
- c. 1596–1599, William Shakespeare, The Second Part of Henrie the Fourth, […], quarto edition, London: […] V[alentine] S[immes] for Andrew Wise, and William Aspley, published 1600, OCLC 55178895, [Act IV, scene iii]:
- c. 1610–1611, William Shakespeare, “The VVinters Tale”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies […] (First Folio), London: […] Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, OCLC 606515358, [Act I, scene ii], page 280, column 1:
- 1875–1876, Gerard Manley Hopkins, “The Wreck of the Deutschland”, in Robert Bridges, editor, Poems of Gerard Manley Hopkins: Now First Published […], London: Humphrey Milford, published 1918, OCLC 5093462, part 2, stanza 19, page 17:
- (archaic) Synonym of
- 1591, Ed[mund] Sp[enser], “Prosopopoia. Or Mother Hubberds Tale.”, in Complaints. Containing Sundrie Small Poemes of the Worlds Vanitie. […], London: […] VVilliam Ponsonbie, […], OCLC 15537294:
- c. 1603–1604, William Shakespeare, “The Tragedie of Othello, the Moore of Venice”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies […] (First Folio), London: […] Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, OCLC 606515358, [Act III, scene iv], page 327, column 2:
- 1860, George Eliot [pseudonym; Mary Ann Evans], “To Garum Firs”, in The Mill on the Floss […], volume I, Edinburgh; London: William Blackwood and Sons, OCLC 80067893, book I (Boy かつ Girl), pages 178–179:
Probably from Old French rasche, rache (“skin eruption, rash; (specifically) scabies, scurf”) (廃れた用法), from racher (“to scrape; to scratch”) (although this is only directly attested later than the noun), from Vulgar Latin *rāsicāre (“to scrape”), from Latin rāsus (“scraped, scratched; shaved”), the perfect passive participle of rādō (“to scrape, scratch; to shave; to rub, smooth; to brush along, graze”), ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *reh₁d- (“to scrape, scratch; to gnaw”). Doublet of rase and raze.
- (dermatology, medicine) An area of inflamed and irritated skin characterized by reddened spots that may be filled with fluid or pus; also, preceded by a descriptive word (rare or obsolete), an illness characterized by a type of rash.
- An irregular distribution or sprinkling of objects resembling a rash (sense 1).
- An outbreak or surge in problems; a spate, string, or trend.
- 1854, Charles Dickens, “Lower and Lower”, in Hard Times. For These Times, London: Bradbury & Evans, […], OCLC 4389957, book the second (Reaping), page 252:
- 2019 April 25, Samanth Subramanian, “Hand dryers v paper towels: the surprisingly dirty fight for the right to dry your hands”, in Katharine Viner, editor, The Guardian, London: Guardian News & Media, ISSN 0261-3077, OCLC 229952407, archived from the original on 31 January 2022:
Origin uncertain; the word is similar to other words from Germanic or Romance languages listed in the table below, but the connection between the English word and those words is unclear. One suggestion is that they ultimately derive from the town of Arras in France, known for its cloth and wool industries (whence arras (“tapestry, wall hanging”)); compare German Rasch (“lightly woven silk or (usually) worsted fabric”) (said to be from Middle High German arrasch (“arras”), and ultimately from the name of the town), and the obsolete names for the fabric, Catalan drap de arraz, drap d'Arraç, Italian paño de ras (字義どおりに “cloth of Arras”). The Oxford English Dictionary states that even if rash did not originally derive from Arras, the name of the town could have influenced the English word.
- Catalan ras (“smooth fabric woven from silk”) (also raç (廃れた用法))
- Danish rask (“thin, coarse woollen cloth usually made from worsted”) (also rasch (廃れた用法), derived from German)
- Dutch ras (“woven silk or (usually) worsted fabric”) (also rasch (廃れた用法, まれに), rass (廃れた用法))
- Middle French ras (modern French ras (“various types of short-nap cloth”))
- German Rasch, Low German Rasch (“lightly woven silk or (usually) worsted fabric”) (古風な用法 または historical)
- Italian raso (“smooth fabric woven from silk”), rascia (“serge”)
- Late Latin rasum (“some form of fabric”), pannus rasus (“satin”)
- Old Occitan ras (modern Occitan ras (“smooth fabric woven from silk”); also rac (廃れた用法))
- Spanish raso (“smooth fabric woven from silk; other types of fabric”)
- Swedish rask (“thin woollen cloth usually made from worsted; similar cloth made from silk”) (also rasch (古風な用法), rass (廃れた用法))
- (historical) Chiefly preceded by a descriptive word: a fabric with a smooth texture woven from silk, worsted, or a mixture of the two, intended as an inferior substitute for silk.
From Late Middle English rashen, rassh (“to hasten, hurry, rush”) [and other forms], from 古期英語 ræscan (“to move rapidly; to flicker; to flash; to glitter; to quiver”); see further at etymology 1.
- To forcefully move or push (someone または something) in a certain direction.
- To break (something) forcefully; to smash.
- To emit or issue (something) hastily.
- (rare) Usually followed by up: to prepare (something) with haste; to cobble together, to improvise.
- 1610 October, John Foxe, “[Translation of a Letter of Huldricus Zuinglius, 1 September 1527 (Julian calendar)]”, in The Second Volume of the Ecclesiasticall Historie, Containing the Acts and Monuments of Martyrs, […], volume II, 6th edition, London: […] [Humphrey Lownes] for the Company of Stationers, OCLC 81611923, book VIII, page 987, column 1:
Probably an aphetic form of arace (“to tear up by the roots; to draw away”) (廃れた用法), from Middle English aracen (“to remove (something) by force, pluck or pull out, tear out; to grab; to lacerate; to flay or skin (an animal); to erase, obliterate”) [and other forms], from Old French aracer, arachier (“to pull off (by physical force)”) [and other forms] (whence Anglo-Norman racher, aracher (“to pluck out, pull out”); modern French arracher (“to pull up, tear out, uproot; to extract, take out (a tooth); to peel, pull off, rip off; to buy, snap up; to fight over; to tear (oneself) away from”)), a variant of esrachier (“to eradicate, get rid of”), from Latin exrādīcāre, ērādīcāre, the present active infinitive of ērādīcō (“to root out; to annihilate, extirpate”), from ē- (a variant of ex- (prefix meaning ‘away; out’)) + rādīx (“root of a plant”) (ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *wréh₂ds (“root”)) + -ō (suffix forming regular first-conjugation verbs).
- Chiefly followed by away, down, off, out, etc.: to pluck, pull, or rip (something) violently.
- 1596, Edmund Spenser, The Faerie Qveene. […], part II (books IV–VI), London: […] [Richard Field] for VVilliam Ponsonby, OCLC 932900760, book V, canto III, stanza 8, page 214:
- 1697, “The Ninth Book of the Æneis”, in Virgil; John Dryden, transl., The Works of Virgil: Containing His Pastorals, Georgics, and Æneis. […], London: […] Jacob Tonson, […], OCLC 403869432, lines 1094–1095, page 496:
Probably a variant of race, raze (“to demolish; to destroy, obliterate; to scrape as if with a razor”), possibly modelled after rash (etymology 5 または etymology 6). Raze is derived from Middle English rasen, racen, rase (“to scrape; to shave; to erase; to pull; to strip off; to pluck or tear out; to root out (a tree, etc.); to pull away, snatch; to pull down; to knock down; to rend, tear apart; to pick clean, strip; to cleave, slice; to sever; to lacerate; to pierce; to carve, engrave; to dig; (比喩的に) to expunge, obliterate; to alter”) [and other forms], from Anglo-Norman raser, rasere, rasser, Middle French, Old French raser (“to shave; to touch lightly, graze; to level off (grain, etc.) in a measure; to demolish, tear down; to erase; to polish; to wear down”), from Vulgar Latin *raso (“to shave; to scrape; to scratch; to touch lightly, graze”), from Latin rāsus (“scraped; shaved”); see further at etymology 2.
- To hack, slash, or slice (something).
- 1596, Edmund Spenser, The Faerie Qveene. […], part II (books IV–VI), London: […] [Richard Field] for VVilliam Ponsonby, OCLC 932900760, book IV, canto II, stanza 17, page 26:
- 1599 (first performance; published 1600), Benjamin Jonson [i.e., Ben Jonson], “Euery Man out of His Humour. A Comicall Satyre. […]”, in The Workes of Ben Jonson (First Folio), London: […] Will[iam] Stansby, published 1616, OCLC 960101342, Act IIII, scene vi, page 148:
- (rare) Chiefly followed by out: to scrape or scratch (something); to obliterate.
- ^ “rash(e, adj.”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.
- “rash, adj. and adv.”, in OED Online , Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, March 2022; “rash1, adj.”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–present.
- ^ “rashe, adv.”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.
- ^ “rash, n.4”, in OED Online , Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, March 2022; “rash2, n.”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–present.
- ^ “rash, n.2”, in OED Online , Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, March 2022.
- ^ “rash, n.3”, in OED Online , Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, June 2018.
- ^ “rashen, v.”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.
- ^ Compare “rash, v.1”, in OED Online , Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, March 2022.
- ^ “arācen, v.”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.
- ^ “rash, v.2”, in OED Online , Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, March 2022.
- ^ “† rash, v.3”, in OED Online , Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, December 2020.
- ^ “rāsen, v.(1)”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.
該当件数 : 289件
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