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メニエール病患者は内リンパ嚢開放術を受ける。 - Weblio英語基本例文集
電流回路に用いる,分流器という抵抗器 - EDR日英対訳辞書
シャント（長く細いチューブ）を脳室から皮膚の下を通して体の別の部位（通常は腹部）に留置する。 - PDQ®がん用語辞書 英語版
シャントを介して排出された脳からの過剰な液体は、体内のどこかの部位で吸収されることになる。 - PDQ®がん用語辞書 英語版
in medicine, a passage that is made to allow blood or other fluid to move from one part of the body to another. for example, a surgeon may implant a tube to drain cerebrospinal fluid from the brain to the abdomen. a surgeon may also change normal blood flow by making a passage that leads from one blood vessel to another.
From Middle English shunten, schunten, schonten, schounten, shont, shonte, shount, shounten, shunte (“to move rapidly または suddenly, jerk; to swerve, turn away; to avoid, dodge, escape, evade”), either:
- possibly a back-formation from Middle English shǒnen (“to decline to do, refuse; to abandon, forsake; to disdain, dislike, hate; to avoid, escape; to be afraid, fear; to be wary of”), from 古期英語 scunian, scynigan; see shun.  Or
- an alteration of Middle English shunden, *schunden, *schinden, from 古期英語 scyndan, scendan (“to hasten, hurry”) (as in āscyndan (“to remove, take away”), from Proto-Germanic *skundijaną (“to compel, drive, push; to accelerate, rush, speed up”), from Proto-Indo-European *sku(n)t-, *ku(n)t- (“to rattle; to shake”).
The English word is cognate with Danish skynde (“to hasten, hurry, speed”), Icelandic skynda, skunda (“to hasten”), Middle High German schünden (“to compel; to urge; to irritate”), Norwegian skynde (“to hurry, rush”), Swedish skynda (“to hasten, hurry; to scuttle, scurry”). Outside Germanic, compare Sanskrit स्कन्दति (skándati, “to dart, leap, spring, spurt または burst forth, ejaculate, assail, drop, split”), Albanian shkund (“to shake; to swig”).
- (transitive) To cause to move (suddenly), as by pushing or shoving; to give a (sudden) start to.
- [1877?], Jacques Geal, “We’re All Shunting”, in John Diprose, compiler, The Railway Song Book, London: Diprose & Bateman, […], OCLC 314368945, page 13, column 1:
- 1907 December, Mark Twain [pseudonym; Samuel Langhorne Clemens], “Extract from Captain Stormfield’s Visit to Heaven: Taken from His Own MS.”, in Harper’s Monthly Magazine, volume CXVI, number DCXCI, New York, N.Y.: Harper & Brothers, OCLC 24998596, page 41, column 2:
- (transitive) To divert to a less important place, position, or state.
- 1862 October, “Q.”, “On Being Shunted”, in London Society. An Illustrated Magazine of Light and Amusing Literature for the Hours of Relaxation, volume II, number IX, London: Office, 49 Fleet Street, E.C., OCLC 966610732, page 334, column 1:
- Here in England it is, thank God! the custom for us to shunt ourselves off the grand trunk railroad of business, in tearing up and down which our lives are mainly passed, into some quiet siding once every year. […] [W]hen July is running into August, and everything is breaking up, you feel that your business for the season—be it in commerce, law, or literature—is achieved, and that the time for your being temporarily shunted has arrived.
- 1893 July 12, John Hall, “House of Representatives. First Readings—Financial Statement.”, in New Zealand. Parliamentary Debates. Fourth Session of the Eleventh Parliament. Legislative Council and House of Representatives, volume 79, Wellington: S. Costall, government printer, OCLC 191255532, page 415, column 1:
- This important question of the acquisition of Native lands has been treated as a perfect shuttlecock in the hands of the Government. […] So far as we know, it has not even been circulated amongst the Natives, so that it would be a monstrous thing to pass it into law this session. This question will therefore be necessarily shunted—the one question that is admitted to be of supreme importance to the Colony of New Zealand. Then, the question of the Native Land Courts is another of those which have been shunted.
- (transitive) To provide with a shunt.
- 2008, Richard C. E. Anderson; Hugh J. L. Garton; John R. W. Kestle, “Treatment of Hydrocephalus with Shunts”, in A. Leland Albright; Ian F. Pollack; P. David Adelson; Birgitta Brandenburg, editor, Principles and Practice of Pediatric Neurosurgery, 2nd edition, New York, N.Y.: Thieme Medical Publishers, →ISBN, page 112, column 1:
- Routine preoperative shunting of tumor patients is no longer common practice because many patients remain shunt free after tumor removal. Dias and Albright reported a series of 58 patients with posterior fossa tumors and hydrocephalus. Twenty-five patients were shunted preoperatively, 17 had external ventricular drains (EVDs) and 16 had no preoperative ventricular catheterization. Twenty-four of the 33 patients not initially shunted remained shunt free at long-term follow-up.
- (transitive, computing) To move data in memory to a physical disk.
- (transitive, electricity) To divert electric current by providing an alternative path.
- 1895 April 2, Merle J. Wightman, Regulation of Continuous-current Motors, US Patent 542,667, page 2, column 2:
- The method of running an electric motor herein set out, which consists in starting the motor with the two halves of its armature in series with a resistance in a two-pole field, then gradually cutting out the resistance, then including the resistance and shunting one-half the motor, then opening the circuit of the shunted half and throwing the two halves of the motor in multiple in a four-pole field, and finally, cutting out the resistance.
- (transitive, rail transport) To move a train from one track to another, or to move carriages, etc. from one train to another.
- 1846, “Report”, in Report of the Officers of the Railway Department to the Lords of the Committee of the Privy Council for Trade: With Appendices I. & II. For the Years 1844–45. […] (House of Commons of the United Kingdom, 1846 Session, Accounts and Papers; 15 (Railway Department)), volume XXXIX, London: Printed by W[illiam] Clowes and Sons, […], for Her Majesty's Stationery Office, OCLC 926569917, class no. 3 (Accidents Attended with Personal Injury to Servants of the Company, under Circumstances Not Involving Danger to the Public), page xxi:
- (transitive, chiefly road transport, informal, Britain) To have a minor collision, especially in a motor car.
- (transitive, surgery) To divert the flow of a body fluid.
- (transitive, obsolete, Britain, dialectal) To turn aside or away; to divert.
- An act of moving (suddenly), as due to a push or shove.
- (electricity) A connection used as an alternative path between parts of an electrical circuit.
- (firearms) The shifting of the studs on a projectile from the deep to the shallow sides of the grooves in its discharge from a shunt gun.
- 1865 October, “Rifled Guns and Missiles”, in Colburn’s United Service Magazine and Naval and Military Journal, part III, number CCCCXLIII, London: Hurst and Blackett, publishers, successors to Henry Colburn, […], OCLC 1017142186, page 170:
- In length, this gun was the same as the French, but weighed 9 cwt. less. It was rifled in six grooves on the shunt plan, in the form in which it has been generally applied to large guns, with the difference that some of the angles of the grooving were rounded off. […] To impede fouling, a slightly greater windage was allowed in the chamber of the shunt gun, the diameter there being 0.04 greater than at the mouth of the bore.
- 1870, Charles Orde Browne, “Section II. Muzzle-loading Armstrong, Shunt System.”, in Ammunition. A Descriptive Treatise on the Different Projectiles, Charges, Fuzes, &c., at Present in Use for Land and Sea Service, and on Other War Stores Manufactured in the Royal Laboratory, part II (Ammunition for Rifled Ordnance), London: Printed under the superintendence of Her Majesty's Stationery Office by George Edward Eyre and William Spottiswoode, […], OCLC 181668023, page 108:
- The shunt system, of which the 64-pr. is the only example now in the service, has been considered inferior to the Woolwich, because besides being unnecessarily complicated, the grooves which are cut with abrupt sharp angles weaken the gun. […] [I]n the shunt gun, however, in addition to the mere fact of the driving side of the double groove being shallow, and the loading side deep, the two grooves join in one deep one at 2 feet 7.5 inches from the muzzle, […]
- (medicine, veterinary medicine) An abnormal passage between body channels.
- 2018, Jon[athan David] Wray, “Case 11 Presenting with Mentation Abnormalities”, in Canine Internal Medicine: What’s Your Diagnosis?, Hoboken, N.J.; Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell, John Wiley & Sons, →ISBN, section C (Hepatobiliary Disease), page 127:
- Portosystemic shunts can be congenital or acquired with congenital PSS commonly comprising a single communicating vessel between the portal venous circulation and the systemic circulation via the caudal vena cava or azygos vein. Of congenital shunts, 66–75% are extrahepatic. Intrahepatic portosystemic shunts are most commonly identified in larger breeds of dog (though we have also seen a number of terriers with intrahepatic shunts through our clinic).
- (surgery) A passage between body channels constructed surgically as a bypass; a tube inserted into the body to create such a passage.
- 2011 October, T. H. Chen [et al.], “Combined Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Blockage, Viscus Perforation and Migration into Urethra, Presenting with Repeated Urinary Tract Infection”, in Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, volume 93, number 7, DOI:10.1308/147870811X602212, PMID 22004629, abstract, page e151:
- (rail transport) A switch on a railway used to move a train from one track to another.
- 1838 December 17, John Hawkshaw, “[Recent Patents.] To John Hawkshaw, of Manchester, in the County of Lancaster, Civil Engineer, for His Invention of Certain Improvements in Mechanism or Apparatus Applicable to Railways, and also to Carriages to be Used thereon”, in W[illiam] Newton, editor, The London Journal and Repertory of Arts, Sciences, and Manufactures, volume XV (Conjoined Series), number XCII, London: Published by W. Newton, […], published 1840, OCLC 1029229898, page 74:
- These improvements consist, firstly, in a novel construction of apparatus to be attached to or applied upon railways, at those parts termed switches, shunts, or moveable rails, which are commonly used for transferring engines, carriages, or trains, from one line of rails to another, as occasion may require, and which apparatus I call a "switch or shunt protector."
- (chiefly road transport, informal, Britain) A minor collision between vehicles.
- 2017, Eddie Irvine; with Maurice Hamilton, “No Big Deal”, in Green Races Red, updated edition, London: CollinsWillow, →ISBN:
- At the first race in Brazil, I became involved in a four-car shunt. I won't go into too much detail now, except to say that the accident had nothing to do with me. […] Everyone else was avoiding the accident when [Jos] Verstappen lost control on the grass, came right into me – and off we all went. It was a huge shunt.
該当件数 : 990件
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