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Since the 1970's he was involved in production and scriptwriting of TV dramas such as "The Gardman," 'The Red Series' including "Akai shogeki" (Red shock), and "Stewardess monogatari" (Tale of stewardess).発音を聞く例文帳に追加
1970年代以降は、大映テレビを中心に『ザ・ガードマン』、『赤い衝撃』などの「赤いシリーズ」、『スチュワーデス物語』などのテレビドラマの演出・脚本を手がける。 - Wikipedia日英京都関連文書対訳コーパス
- (alcoholic beverages, obsolete) Clear, free of dregs and lees; old and strong.
- 1637, John Taylor, The Famovs Historie of the most part of Drinks, in use now in the Kingdomes of Great Brittaine and Ireland:
- The stronger Beere is divided into two parts ( viz.) mild and stale; the first may ease a man of a drought, but the later is like water cast into a Smiths forge, and breeds more heartburning, and as rust eates into Iron, so overstale Beere gnawes auletholes in the entrales, or else my skill failes, and what I have written of it is to be held as a jest.
- No longer fresh, in reference to food, urine, straw, wounds, etc.
- 1530, John Palsgrave, L'éclaircissement de la langue française, 325 2:
- c. 1550, Wyll of Deuill, C 2 b:
- 2012, Stephen Woodworth, In Golden Blood: Number 3 in series
- To her surprise, Abe did not come to collect her for the usual morning inhabitation session with Azure. She did not see him until almost noon, when he personally delivered lunch to her tent. Another stale roll and cup of water sat on the tray he carried. Abe hung his head, as abashed as Honorato had been. “This is all I could sneak in for now. I'll try to get more later.”
- No longer fresh, new, or interesting, in reference to ideas and immaterial things; cliche, hackneyed, dated.
- 1562, in J. Heywood, Proverbs & Epigrams (1867), 95:
- 1579, in G. Harvey, letter book, 60:
- c. 1599–1602, William Shakespeare, “The Tragedie of Hamlet, Prince of Denmarke”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies […] (First Folio), London: […] Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, OCLC 606515358, [Act I, scene ii], line 133:
- 1822 March, Charles Lamb, London Magazine, 284 1:
- 2002, Mark Lawson, And They Rose Up: Days of Retribution
- (obsolete) No longer nubile or suitable for marriage, in reference to people; past one's prime.
- (in general) Not new or recent; having been in place or in effect for some time.
- (agriculture, obsolete) Fallow, in reference to land.
- (law) Unreasonably long in coming, in reference to claims and actions.
- Worn out, particularly due to age or over-exertion, in reference to athletes and animals in competition.
- (finance) Out of date, unpaid for an unreasonable amount of time, particularly in reference to checks.
- (computing) Of data: out of date; not synchronized with the newest copy.
In the sense regarding food, usually (but not always) pejorative and synonymous with gone bad and turned. In reference to mead, wine, and bread, it can describe an acceptable or desired state (see crouton). In modern English, however, "stale beer" has been light struck, flat, or oxidized and is to be avoided.
- stale drunk
- (colloquial) Something stale; a loaf of bread or the like that is no longer fresh.
- 1874, Thomas Hardy, Far from the Madding Crowd, II iii 39:
- 1937, George Orwell, Road to Wigan Pier, I i 15:
- (of alcohol, obsolete, transitive) To make stale; to age in order to clear and strengthen (a drink, especially beer).
- (transitive) To make stale; to cause to go out of fashion or currency; to diminish the novelty or interest of, particularly by excessive exposure or consumption.
- 1601, Ben Jonson, Fountaine of Self-love, 36:
- c. 1606–1607, William Shakespeare, “The Tragedie of Anthonie and Cleopatra”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies […] (First Folio), London: […] Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, OCLC 606515358, [Act II, scene ii], line 241:
- 1863, W. W. Story, Roba di Roma, I i 7:
- (intransitive) To become stale; to grow odious from excessive exposure or consumption.
- 1717, E. Erskine, Serm. in Wks., 50 1:
- 1893, "Q", Delectable Duchy, 325:
- 1990, Stephen King, The Moving Finger
- (alcoholic beverages, intransitive) To become stale; to grow unpleasant from age.
From Middle English stale, from 古期英語 stalu, from Proto-Germanic *stal-. The development was paralleled by the ablaut which became English steal, from Middle English stele, from 古期英語 stela, from Proto-Germanic *stel-. The latter also produced Ancient Greek στελεός (steleós, “handle”) and Latin stēla, which became English stele and stela.
- A long, thin handle (of rakes, axes, etc.)
- 1742, W. Ellis, London & Country Brewer 4th ed., I 61:
- 1890 February 4, Manchester Guardian, 12 3:
- (dialectal) One of the posts or uprights of a ladder.
- One of the rungs on a ladder.
- 1792, Thomas Paine, A Rod in Brine, or a tickler for T. Paine, page 16:
- To begin then: not long before this paragraph was written, P fell into doze, and dreamt, he saw Jacob's ladder with one foot standing on the earth, the other reaching up into heaven. Dukes, Marquisses, and other Peers, fancy represented to him, as standing on the upper stales; on the middle ones, Knights and Baronets, and under them, a train of Esquires and Gentlemen, reaching to the bottom.
- 1834, Joseph Adshead, A Circumstantial Narrative of the Wreck of the Rothsay, page 236:
- Mr. Marsden managed, by dint of swimming, to come in contact with the form, to which hemself and friend had previously fixed the cord and thrown overboard; but this, from its shape, would have proved, in all probability, but a doubtful means of escape, had he not, after a time, fallen in with a small ladder, which he affixed with the cord to the form, placing his leg between the stales, and resting his body, sometimes at full length, when the breakers had fallen on the form.
- 1914, Archaeologia Cantiana - Volume 30, page 173:
- The rental of the lands remained at these figures for many years, and the following extracts are examples of the payments made:— A.D. 1686, Utt, pd Thomas Rassel for a load of lime delivered to Smalhith Chappell 01₤ 11s. 0d. Itt . for a quire of paper 00₤ 00s. 06d. Itt . for a ladder for the use of the Chappel 33 stales long , at 2d ye stale 00₤ 05s. 6d.
- 2014, Matthew Engel, Engel's England: Thirty-nine counties, one capital and one man:
- (botany, obsolete) The stem of a plant.
- The shaft of an arrow, spear, etc.
- (military, obsolete) A fixed position, particularly a soldier's in a battle-line.
- 1550, Edward Halle, The Vnion of the Two Noble and Illustre Famelies of Lancastre and Yorke:
- Wherefore they had a great avauntage, but in coclusion thie french menne were slayne, and their horses taken, and so the lyght horsement came wyth their catail, nere to the embushment, and the frenchimen folowed, that seyng the englyshmen that kept the stale, came in al hast & rescued their light horsemen, and draue the frenchemen backe, & then made returne to their beastes
- 1808, Raphael Holinshed, Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland, page 580:
- All these in great hast came to Newnam bridge, where they found other Englishmen that had woone the bridge of the Frenchmen, and so all togither set foward to assaile the Frenchmen that kept the stale, and tarie till the residue of their companie which were gone a forraging vnto Calis walles were come: for the other that had spoiled the marishes were returned with a great bootie.
- (chess, まれに) A stalemate; a stalemated game.
- (military, obsolete) An ambush.
- (obsolete) A band of armed men or hunters.
- c. 1540, J. Bellenden translating H. Boece, Hyst. & Cron. Scotl., XII xvi 184:
- 1577, R. Holinshed, Hist. Scotl., 471 2 in Chron., I:
- (Scotland, military, obsolete) The main force of an army.
- (chess, まれに, transitive) To stalemate.
- (chess, obsolete, intransitive) To be stalemated.
- (livestock, obsolete) Urine, especially used of horses and cattle.
- 1535, Miles Coverdale translating the Bible, "Isaiah", XXXVI.100:
- 1548, Robert Record, Vrinal of Physick, XI.89:
- 1583, B. Melbancke, Philotimus:
- 1603, Michel de Montaigne, chapter 48, in John Florio, transl., The Essayes […], book I, London: […] Val[entine] Simmes for Edward Blount […], OCLC 946730821:
- c. 1606–1607, William Shakespeare, “The Tragedie of Anthonie and Cleopatra”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies […] (First Folio), London: […] Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, OCLC 606515358, [Act I, scene iv], line 62:
- 1698, J. Fryer, New Acct. E.-India & Persia, p.242:
- 1733, W. Ellis, Chiltern & Vale Farming, p.122:
- (livestock, obsolete, intransitive) To urinate, especially used of horses and cattle.
- 15th century, Lawis Gild, X in Ancient Laws and Customs of the Burghs of Scotland, 68:
- 1530, John Palsgrave, L'éclaircissement de la langue française, 732 1:
- 1631, Ben Jonson, Bartholmew Fayre I iv 64:
- 1663, T. Killigrew, Parson's Wedding, I iii:
- 1903, Rudyard Kipling, Five Nations, 150:
- c. 1920, Aleister Crowley, "Leigh Sublime":
- 1928, Siegfried Sassoon, Memoirs of a Fox-Hunting Man, Penguin 2013, page 35:
From Middle English stale (“bird used as a decoy”), probably from uncommon Anglo-Norman estale (“pigeon used to lure hawks”), ultimately from Proto-Germanic, probably *standaną (“to stand”). Compare 古期英語 stælhran (“decoy reindeer”) and Northumbrian stællo (“catching fish”).
- (falconry, hunting, obsolete) A live bird to lure birds of prey or others of its kind into a trap.
- 1579, Thomas North, Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans, "Sylla", 515:
- 1608, R. Tofte translating Ludovico Ariosto, Satyres, IV 56:
- (obsolete) Any lure, particularly in reference to people used as live bait.
- c. 1529, "The Tunnyng of Elynour Rummyng", 324, in John Skelton, Certayne Bokes:
- 1577, Raphael Holinshed, Chronicles, "The Historie of England, from the Time that It Was First Inhabited, Vntill the Time that It Was Last Conquered", 79 2:
- 1615, George Sandys, A Relation of a Iourney begun An: Dom: 1610, I 66:
- 1670, J. Eachard, Grounds Contempt of Clergy, 88:
- (crime, obsolete) An accomplice of a thief or criminal acting as bait.
- (obsolete) a partner whose beloved abandons or torments him in favor of another.
- 1578, J. Lyly, Euphues, 33:
- 1588, T. Hughes, Misfortunes Arthur, I ii 3:
- 1611, T. Middleton & al., Roaring Girle:
- c. 1594, William Shakespeare, “The Comedie of Errors”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies […] (First Folio), London: […] Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, OCLC 606515358, [Act II, scene i], line 100:
- (obsolete) A patsy, a pawn, someone used under some false pretext to forward another's (usu. sinister) designs; a stalking horse.
- 1580, E. Grindal in 1710, J. Strype, Hist. E. Grindal, 252:
- c. 1591–1592, William Shakespeare, “The Third Part of Henry the Sixt, […]”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies […] (First Folio), London: […] Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, OCLC 606515358, [Act III, scene iii], line 260:
- 1614, W. Raleigh, Hist. World, I iv iii §19 239:
- 1711, J. Puckle, Club 20:
- (crime, obsolete) A prostitute of the lowest sort; any wanton woman.
- 1598–1599 (first performance), William Shakespeare, “Much Adoe about Nothing”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies […] (First Folio), London: […] Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, OCLC 606515358, (please specify the act number in uppercase Roman numerals, かつ the scene number in lowercase Roman numerals):
- 1606, S. Daniel, Queenes Arcadia, II i:
- c. 1641, Ralph Montagu, Acts & Monuments, 265:
- (hunting, obsolete) Any decoy, either stuffed or manufactured.
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