該当件数 : 173件
|同義語（エイリアス）||thag; free thinker; think again|
|同義語（エイリアス）||pana; pollyanna; free thinker|
fret [be in a fret]
From Middle English frēten (“to eat (at), corrode, destroy, annoy”), from 古期英語 fretan (“to eat up, devour; to fret; to break, burst”), from Proto-West Germanic *fraetan, from Proto-Germanic *fraetaną (“to consume, devour, eat up”), from Proto-Germanic *fra- (“for-, prefix meaning ‘completely, fully’”) (from Proto-Indo-European *pro- (“forward, toward”)) + *etaną (“to eat”) (ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *h₁ed- (“to eat”)).
The word is cognate with Dutch vreten, fretten (“to devour, hog, wolf”), Low German freten (“to eat up”), German fressen (“to devour, gobble up, guzzle”), Gothic (fraitan, “to devour”), Swedish fräta (“to eat away, corrode, fret”); and also related to Danish fråse (“to gorge”).
The senses meaning “to chafe, rub” could also be due to sound-association with Anglo-Norman *freiter (modern dialectal French fretter), from Vulgar Latin *frictāre, frequentative of Latin fricāre, from fricō (“to chafe, rub”), ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *bʰreyH- (“to cut”); compare Old French froter (modern French frotter). The chief difficulty is the lack of evidence of the Old French word.
- (transitive, obsolete or poetic) Especially when describing animals: to consume, devour, or eat.
- [c. 1370–1390, [William Langland], “Passus. xviii. de visione”, in The Vision of Pierce Plowman [...] (in Middle English), London: […] Roberte Crowley, […], published 1550, →OCLC, folio lxxxxix, verso:
- At the beginning God gaue the dome him ſelfe / That Adam and Eue and all them that ſewed, / Shuld dye down right and dwell in pyne after, / If that they touched a tree and the frute eaten, / Adam afterwarde agaynſt hys defence / freet of that frute, and forſake as it were, / The loue of our lord and his lore bothe, [...]
- At the beginning God gave the judgment himself / That Adam and Eve and all them that ensued, / Should die down right and dwell in pain after, / If that they touched a tree and the fruit ate, / Adam afterward against his warning / Ate of that fruit, and forsook, as it were, / The love of our Lord and his lore both, [...]]
- 1609, Ammianus Marcellinus; Philemon Holland, transl., chapter XIV, in The Roman Historie, containing Such Acts and Occurrents as Passed under Constantius, Iulianus, Iovianus, Valentinianus, and Valens, Emperours, book IX, London: Printed by Adam Islip, →OCLC, page 322:
- 1727–1728, Mather Byles [et al.], Bruce [Ingham] Granger, editor, Proteus Echo (1727–28): A Series of Essays and Poems [...] that Appeared in the New-England Weekly Journal [...] (History of Psychology Series; 420), Delmar, N.Y.: Scholars' Facsimiles & Reprints, published 1986, →ISBN, page 75:
- (transitive) To chafe or irritate; to worry.
- 1676, Richard Wiseman, “[A Treatise of Tumors.] Of an Herpes”, in Severall Chirurgical Treatises, London: Printed by E. Flesher and J[ohn] Macock, for R[ichard] Royston bookseller to His Most Sacred Majesty, and B[enjamin] Took at the Ship in St. Paul's Church-yard, →OCLC, page 80:
- 1823–1824, A[stley Paston] Cooper, “Lecture LII”, in The Lancet. [...] In Two Volumes, 3rd edition, volume II, London: Knight and Lacey, Paternoster-Row; and G. L. Hutchinson, the Lancet office, Strand, published 1826, →OCLC, pages 100–101:
- We sometimes perform an operation on the under lip [...] in consequence of / Cancer Labii [cancer of the lips], / Which disease generally arises from the use of a pipe, and the manner in which it happens is this:—the adhesive nature of the clay of which the pipe is made, causes it to adhere to the lip; at length the cuticle becomes torn off, and the continued irritation frets the sore into true cancerous disease.
- 1882 June, [Margaret Oliphant], “The Ladies Lindores.—Part III.”, in Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine, volume CXXXI (米国用法 edition, volume XCIV), number DCCC, New York, N.Y.: The Leonard Scott Publishing Co., 41 Barclay Street, →OCLC, chapter VII, page 708, column 2:
- (transitive) To make rough, to agitate or disturb; to cause to ripple.
- (transitive) In the form fret out: to squander, to waste.
- 1611, John Speed, “Henrie the Sixth, King of England, and France, Lord of Ireland: The Three and Fiftieth Monarch of England, His Raigne, Actes, and Issve”, in The History of Great Britaine under the Conquests of ye Romans, Saxons, Danes and Normans. [...], Imprinted at London: [By William Hall and John Beale] [...] and are to be solde by Iohn Sudbury & Georg Humble, in Popes-head alley at ye signe of ye white Horse, →OCLC; republished London: Printed by Iohn Beale, for George Hvmble, and are to be sold in Popes-head Pallace, at the signe of the White Horse, 1614, →OCLC, book 9, paragraph 55, page 665, column 1:
- 1835, Louisa Sidney Stanhope, “Conclusion”, in Sydney Beresford. A Tale of the Day. [...] In Three Volumes, volume III, London: Sherwood, Gilbert, and Piper, Paternoster-Row, →OCLC, page 274:
- We are all hurrying down the one common stream to the great ocean of eternity: but are we performing our social duties, as citizens of the world, in sculking away into holes and corners, to fret out time and life, because God has judged fit to withdraw the favourite toy he lent us—not making us destitute—but graciously leaving in our keeping, ten thousand toys beside.
- (transitive, intransitive) To gnaw; to consume, to eat away.
- 1677, Edward Browne, “A Journey from Vienna in Austria to Hamburg”, in An Account of Several Travels through a Great Part of Germany: In Four Journeys. [...], London: Printed for Benj[amin] Tooke, and are to be sold at the sign of the Ship in St. Paul's Church-yard, →OCLC, page 136:
- 1881, Frederick W[illiam] Robertson, “The Peace of God”, in “The Human Race” and Other Sermons Preached at Cheltenham, Oxford, and Brighton, New York, N.Y.: Harper & Brothers, Franklin Square, →OCLC, page 233:
- 1886 January 5, Samuel West, “Some Aneurysms of the Heart, Many of the Cases Exhibiting the Effects of Erosion”, in Transactions of the Pathological Society of London, volume XXXVII (Comprising the Report of the Proceedings for the Session 1885–86), London: Smith, Elder & Co., 15, Waterloo Place, →OCLC, page 159:
- In all the present cases it is the aortic valves that are the source of the mischief. Vegetations, massive, tough, and often calcareous have formed upon these valves, and as they were drive to and fro by the blood-stream have fretted the parts with which they came into contact, and aneurysm at these spots has been the frequent result.
- (transitive, intransitive) To be chafed or irritated; to be angry or vexed; to utter peevish expressions through irritation or worry.
- (intransitive) To be worn away; to chafe; to fray.
- 1893, A[lexander] Fraser-Macdonald, “The North Atlantic Viewed as a Region Traversed by Our Ocean Railways”, in Our Ocean Railways: Or, The Rise, Progress, and Development of Ocean Steam Navigation, London: Chapman and Hall, →OCLC, page 239:
- This, as Maury remarks, "suggested the idea that there was no running water nor abrading forces at play upon the bed of the deep sea, and consequently, if ever an electric cord were lodged upon the telegraphic plateau, there it would lie in cold abstraction; without anything to fret, chafe or wear, save alone the tooth of time."
- (intransitive) To be anxious, to worry.
- 1813 January 27, [Jane Austen], chapter XVIII, in Pride and Prejudice, volume II, London: […] [George Sidney] for T[homas] Egerton […], →OCLC, pages 218–219:
- With this answer Elizabeth was forced to be content; but her own opinion continued the same, and she left him disappointed and sorry. It was not in her nature, however, to increase her vexations by dwelling on them. She was confident of having performed her duty, and to fret over unavoidable evils, or augment them by anxiety, was no part of her disposition.
- 1913, Joseph C[rosby] Lincoln, chapter 5, in Mr. Pratt’s Patients, New York, N.Y.; London: D. Appleton and Company, →OCLC, →OL, pages 115–116:
- Of all the queer collections of humans outside of a crazy asylum, it seemed to me this sanitarium was the cup winner. But, after all, I shouldn't have expected nothing different. When you're well enough off so's you don't have to fret about anything but your heft or your diseases you begin to get queer, I suppose.
- (intransitive) To be agitated; to rankle; to be in violent commotion.
- 1789, John Gillies, chapter II, in A View of the Reign of Frederick II. of Prussia; with a Parallel between the Prince and Philip II. of Macedon, Printed for A[ndrew] Strahan; and T[homas] Cadell, in the Strand, →OCLC, page 142:
- 1815, Walter Scott, “The Lord of the Isles”, in The Poetical Works of Walter Scott: Complete in One Volume, Frankfurt: Printed by and for H. L. Brœnner, published 1826, →OCLC, canto I, page 130:
- 1891 June, William H[enry] Rideing, “Safety on the Atlantic”, in Scribner’s Magazine, volume IX, number 6, New York, N.Y.: Charles Scribner's Sons; London: F[rederick] Warne & Co., →OCLC, page 700, column 2:
- (intransitive, brewing, oenology) To have secondary fermentation (fermentation occurring after the conversion of sugar to alcohol in beers かつ wine) take place.
- 1725, [Noël] Chomel, “CHERRY-WINE”, in R[ichard] Bradley, editor, Dictionaire Oeconomique: Or, The Family Dictionary. […], volume I (A–H), London: […] D[aniel] Midwinter, […], →OCLC:
- If their Cherries are full ripe and ſweet, they put only a Pound and an half of good Sugar to each gallon of Liquor, ſtir it well together, and cover it cloſe, and ſtir it no more till the next Day, then pour it carefully off the Lees as before; then let it ſtand again, and do the ſame the next Day into the Veſſel they keep it in: This may be repeated oftner, if they ſee the Lees are groſs, and like to make it fret when it is ſettled, then ſtop it up till ſeven or eight Months are paſs'd; at which time if perfectly fine, they bottle it; [...]
- 1856, “The Art of Brewing”, in The Brewer: A Familiar Treatise on the Art of Brewing, with Directions for the Selection of Malt and Hops, &c., &c.: Instructions for Making Cider and British Wines: Also, a Description of the New and Improved Brewing Saccharometer and Slide Rule, with Full Instructions for Their Use, London: William R[obert] Loftus, 6, Beaufoy Terrace, Edgeware Road, →OCLC, page 50:
- It is important to allow beer to flatten, after it has ceased working. This is accomplished by leaving the casks open, when the small floating particles of yeast part with their fixed air, lose their buoyancy, and sink to the bottom. [...] The beer having thus deposited its remaining yeast will not be liable to fret.
- Agitation of the surface of a fluid by fermentation or some other cause; a rippling on the surface of water.
- 1724, Paul Neile, “Sir Paul Neile’s Discourse of Cider”, in John Evelyn, Silva: Or, A Discourse of Forest-trees, and the Propagation of Timber in His Majesty’s Dominions: [...] In Two Books. [...], 5th edition, London: Printed for J. Walthoe [et al.], →OCLC, page 91:
- Now though Cider uſed in my Method ſhould not ferment at all, till it come into the Bottle, and then but a little; yet the Cauſe of Fermentation being in a great Degree taken away, the reſt can do no conſiderable Harm to thoſe who drink it, [...] It is in your Power to give the Cider juſt as much fret as you pleaſe, and no more; and that by ſeveral ways: For either you may bottle it ſooner or later, as you pleaſe: Or you may bottle it from two Taps in your Veſſel, and that from the higher Tap will have leſs Fret, and the lower more: [...]
- 1857, [Margaret Oliphant], “The First Day”, in The Days of My Life. An Autobiography. [...] In Three Volumes, volume III, London: Hurst and Blackett, publishers, successors to Henry Colburn, 13, Great Marlborough Street, →OCLC, page 4:
- The place was a little below Gravesend, quite out of the fret and bustle of the narrower river, and there was not even a steamboat pier to disturb the quiet of this cluster of harmless houses, though they watched upon their beach the passage of great navies down the greatest thoroughfare of England.
- 1877, “BEER”, in Encyclopædia of Chemistry Theoretical, Practical, and Analytical as Applied to the Arts and Manufactures, volume I (Acetic Acid – Gas), Philadelphia, Pa.: J. B. Lippincott & Co., →OCLC, page 315, column 2:
- When the pitching heat is high, and the yeast is of a good quality and in sufficient abundance, the fermentation proceeds so rapidly and with such energy that it becomes ungovernable; some means must therefore be employed to check the heat. For this purpose coils of pipe, through which water circulates, are fitted up in the tun. Unless this is done the whole of the glutinous constituents of the gyle is not removed in the yeast, and the liquor does not cleanse satisfactorily, in consequence of an after fermentation which sets in, which is technically known as the "fret."
- Agitation of the mind marked by complaint and impatience; disturbance of temper; irritation.
- 1735, [Alexander] Pope, An Epistle from Mr. Pope, to Dr. Arbuthnot, London; Dublin: Re-printed by George Faulkner, bookseller, […], →OCLC, lines 148–153, page 8:
- 1836 December, “Art. IX. Transactions of the Institute of British Architects. Vol. I. Part I. London, 1836.”, in John Taylor Coleridge, editor, The Quarterly Review, volume LVIII, number CXVI, London: John Murray, Albemarle Street, →OCLC, page 524:
- It was our good fortune last autumn to escape from the feverish excitement and moral tension of this vast metropolis, from the hurry and fret of business, the glut of pleasure, the satiety of delight, the weariness of politics, and the exhausting duties of our critical function, into that favoured corner of our fortunate island, the West of England; [...]
- 1980, Renaissance Papers, Durham, N.C.: Southeastern Renaissance Conference, →ISSN, →OCLC, page 50:
- After their introduction to Orlando, Celia wonders why Rosalind should be so morose ([William Shakespeare's As You Like It,] I.iii.10–19): [...] In her effort to cheer Rosalind, Celia compares these frets to burs, meaning the rough and prickly flowerheads: "They are but burs, cousin, thrown upon thee in holiday foolery."
- Herpes; tetter (“any of various pustular skin conditions”).
- 1860, Robert J[acob] Jordan, chapter I, in Skin Diseases and Their Remedies, London: John Churchill, New Burlington Street, →OCLC, book I (Diseases of the Skin), page 57:
- Vesiculæ, or vesicles, are small, circumscribed elevations of the scarf-skin, containing serum, at first (both in their coats かつ contents) transparent, afterwards white and opaque, and terminating in the formation of scurf or thin scales. Under this head are ranged varicella (chicken-pox), sudamina, eczema (red fret), herpes (fret), scabies (itch).
- 1867 April 25, [Colin Mackenzie], “Farriery”, in Mackenzie’s Ten Thousand Receipts, in All the Useful and Domestic Arts; Constituting a Complete and Practical Library, [...], new, carefully revised and re-written edition, Philadelphia, Pa.: T. Ellwood Zell & Company, Nos. 17 & 19 South Sixth Street, pages 112–113:
- To cure Gripes in Horses. This disorder goes by different names in different districts of the country; as fret, from the uneasiness attending it; bots, from its being thought to arise from these animals or worms, etc. [...] In speaking of the medicine for gripes, or the flatulent colic sometimes termed fret, Mr. White mentions, domestic remedies may be employed when proper medicines cannot be procured in time.
- (mining, in the plural) The worn sides of riverbanks, where ores or stones containing them accumulate after being washed down from higher ground, which thus indicate to miners the locality of veins of ore.
- 1716, “[The Tin Mines in Devonshire and Cornwal] [marginal note]”, in John Lowthorp, editor, The Philosophical Transactions, and Collections, to the End of the Year 1700, Abridg’d and Dispos’d under General Heads, volume II (Containing All the Physiological Papers), London: Printed for Robert Knaplock, at the Bishop's-Head; Richard Wilkin, at the King's-Head; and Henry Clements, at the Half-Moon in St. Paul's Church-yard, →OCLC, page 566:
- Then we obſerve the Frets in the Banks of Rivers that are newly made by any great Land-Flood, which uſually are then very clean, to ſee, if happily we can diſcover any metalline Stones in the Sides and Bottoms thereof, together with the Caſt of the Country (i.e. any earth of a different colour from the reſt of the Bank), which is a great help to direct us, which ſide or hill to ſearch into.
From Middle English frēten (“to decorate”), from Old French freté, freter, fretter (“to fret (decorate with an interlacing pattern)”), from Old French fret (from fraindre (“to break”), from Latin frangō (“to break, shatter”), from Proto-Italic *frangō, ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *bʰreg- (“to break”)) + Old French -er (“suffix forming verbs”) (from Latin -āre, ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *h₃enh₂- (“to burden, charge”)).
- An ornamental pattern consisting of repeated vertical and horizontal lines, often in relief.
- (heraldry) A saltire interlaced with a mascle.
- (transitive) To decorate or ornament, especially with an interlaced or interwoven pattern, or (architecture) with carving or relief (raised) work.
- (transitive) To form a pattern on; to variegate.
- 1599 (first performance), William Shakespeare, “The Tragedie of Iulius Cæsar”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies […] (First Folio), London: […] Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, →OCLC, [Act II, scene i], page 114, column 2:
- 1882 July 29, J. Henry Shorthouse, “The Marquis Jeanne Hyacinth De St. Palaye [from Macmillan’s Magazine]”, in Littel’s Living Age, volume XXXIX (Fifth Series; volume CLIV overall), number 1988, Boston, Mass.: Littel & Co., →OCLC, section V, page 228, column 1:
- (transitive) To cut through with a fretsaw, to create fretwork.
From Middle English freten (“to bind”), from Old French freter, from frete (“ferrule, ring”) (modern French frette). The origin of the music senses are uncertain; they are possibly from frete or from fret (“to chafe, rub”).
- (obsolete or dialectal) A ferrule, a ring.
- (music) One of the pieces of metal, plastic or wood across the neck of a guitar or other string instrument that marks where a finger should be positioned to depress a string as it is played.
- 1880, A. J. H[ipkins], “LUTE”, in George Grove, editor, A Dictionary of Music and Musicians (A.D. 1450–1880) [...] In Three Volumes, volume II, London: Macmillan and Co., →OCLC, page 175, column 2:
- 1916, “History of the Orchestra”, in Daniel Gregory Mason, editor-in-chief; Benjamin Lambord, editor, The Orchestra and Orchestral Music (The Art of Music: A Comprehensive Library of Information for Music Lovers かつ Musicians; 8), New York, N.Y.: The National Society of Music, →OCLC, section III, page 69:
- To bind, to tie, originally with a loop or ring.
- (transitive, music) Musical senses.
- A channel, a strait; a fretum.
- 1589, Humfrey Gilbert [i.e., Humphrey Gilbert], “A Discourse Written by Sir Humfrey Gilbert Knight, to Prooue a Passage by the Northwest to Cathaia, and the East Indies”, in Richard Hakluyt, The Principall Navigations, Voiages, and Discoveries of the English Nation, […], London: […] George Bishop and Ralph Newberie, deputies to Christopher Barker, […], →OCLC, chapter 1 (To Prooue by Authoritie a Passage to be on the North Side of America, to Go to Cathaia, かつ the East India), page 597:
- 1721, Joseph Addison, “Pesaro, Fano, Senigallia, Ancona, Loretto, &c. to Rome”, in The Works of the Right Honourable Joseph Addison, Esq, volume II (Remarks on Several Parts of Italy, &c. in the Years 1701, 1702, 1703), London: Printed for Jacob Tonson, at Shakespear's-Head, over-against Katherine-street in the Strand, →OCLC, page 56:
- The river Velino, after having found its way from among the rocks where it falls, runs into the Nera. The channel of this laſt river is white with rocks, and the ſurface of it, for a long ſpace, covered with froth and bubbles; for it runs all along upon the fret, and is ſtill breaking againſt the ſtones that oppoſe its paſſage: [...]
Attested since the mid-1800s, of unknown origin. Perhaps related to fret (“to form a pattern upon”), fret (“to consume”) (as the fog does the land), or fret (“to agitate the surface of water”) (as the wind which blows the fog inland does); compare the semantics of haar (“cold wind; misty wind; fog, mist”). Dialectally, the spelling freet and pronunciation /fɹit/ are also found, as they also are for fret (“consume; agitate”).
- ^ “frēten, v.(1).”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007, retrieved 18 February 2018.
- ^ Oxford English Dictionary, 1884–1928, and First Supplement, 1933.
- ^ “frēten, v.(2).”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007, retrieved 18 February 2018.
- ^ Oxford English Dictionary, 1884–1928, and First Supplement, 1933.; Oxford English Dictionary, 1884–1928, and First Supplement, 1933.
- ^ Oxford English Dictionary, 1884–1928, and First Supplement, 1933.
- ^ “fret”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–2022.
- ^ “sea fret”, in Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, Springfield, Mass.: Merriam-Webster, 1996–present.
- ^ Joseph Wright, editor (1900), “FRET”, in The English Dialect Dictionary: […], volume II (D–G), London: Henry Frowde, […], publisher to the English Dialect Society, […]; New York, N.Y.: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, →OCLC.
該当件数 : 173件
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